The term is used to describe the growth and accumulation of living organisms on the surfaces of submerged artificial structures as opposed to natural surfaces. It results in increased costs of recovery of normal functioning of man made structures such as ships, buoys, floats, pipes, cables etc. Biofouling may be of two types-
Microfouling- microorganisms form a film on the structure.
Macrofouling- bryozoans, barnacles, molluscs, tubeworms cause fouling.