Some of the international initiatives for mitigating global change are discussed below:
(i) Montreal Protocol: In 1987, twenty seven, industrialized countries signed an international agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone. This agreement is known asw Montreal Protocol. The main points of the arrangement are:
(a) To limit the production and use of ozone depleting substances,
(b) Phasing out of ozone depleting substances, and
(c) Helping the developing countries to implement use of alternatives to CFCs.
Uptill now, more than 175 countries have signed the Montreal Protocol.
(ii) Earth Summit: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), the Earth Summit, held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992, established the principles for reducing greenhouse gas emission.
(iii) Kyoto Protocol. An international conference held in Kyoto, Japan in December, 1997, has specified the commitments of different countries to mitigate climate change. This protocol requires countries to take appropriate measures to reduce their overall greenhouse emission to a level at lease 5 per cent below the 1990 level by the commitment period 2008-2012.