What is ecosystem?
Ecosystem is the structural and functional unit of the Biosphere, constituted by some living organisms, and non-living materials through which material moves and energy cascades.
How can you classify ecosystem from a structural point of view?
Classification on the basis of structure or Biome classification is as follows:
1. Terrestrial Ecosystem: Tundra, Boreal, Coniferous forests, Temperature deciduous forests, Temperature and Tropical Grasslands, Savana, Tropical Rain forests, etc.
2. Freshwater Ecosystem: Lotic and Lentic Ecosystems.
3. Marine Ecosystem: Ocean, Coastal, Estuarine system.
How can you classify the ecosystem on the basis of energy.
Energy is the controlling agent of all ecosystems. So their classification on the basis of energy is quite relevant. The classification is as follows:
1. Non sub-sidized natural Ecosystems controlled by solar energy.
2. Natural systems controlled by solar energy but aided by other natural energy.
3. Systems controlled by solar energy but aided by human beings.
4. Urban Industrial area driven by Fuels.
Outline the structure of a pond ecosystem.
An ideal pond ecosytem is made of the following-
a. Abiotic factors:
Different inorganic and organic substances like O2, CO2, H2O, salts of Ca, Mg, Na, N2, S, P, etc. Amino acid, Humic acid and many others. Most of the resources are in the reservoir pool.
b. Biotic factors:
- Producers: Phytoplankton and Macrophytes.
- Secondary consumers: Zooplanktons and Benthos.
- Secondary consumers: Fishes, Molluscs, sponges.
- Tertiary consumers: Game fishes
- Decomposers: Bacteria, Fungi, Flagellates.
How can you classify the living organisms of an aquatic eco- system?
The living organisms of aquatic ecosystems can be classified in various ways, such as :
a. Trophic classification:
1. Autotrophs: Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms.
2. Heterotrophs: Different consumers and Parasites.
3. Saprotrophs and Decomposers: Different microorganisms, Fungi.
b. Based on habits and life processes:
1. Plankton, 2. Neuston, 3. Pleuston, 4. Necton, 5. Benthos, 6. Periphyton.
c. They may further be classified on the basis of their location in various zones of water body, such as Littoral animals , Limnetic animals etc.
What are the structural components of a grass land ecosystem.
A grass land ecosystem consist of :
a. Abiotic components:
Like other ecosystems grasslands include basic inorganic and organic materials like O2, CO2, H2O, various metallic and non-metallic salts. Amino acids and Humic acids, etc. Here the rate of humification is fast but rate of mineralization is slow:
b. Biotic components:
- Primary consumers- Mostly hoofed grazers, Rodents, Ground squirrels.
- Secondary consumers- Carnivores like Lions, and other greater and lesser cats, Canids etc.
- Tertiary consumers: Big cats, Hyenas, Raptors, Reptiles etc.
- Decomposers- Bacteria, Fungi and some other microorgamisms.