Ecology is usually considered a branch of biology, the general science that studies living organisms. Organisms can be studied at many different levels, from proteins and nucleic acids, to cells, to individuals and at the level of populations, communities and ecosystems to the biosphere as a whole.
Ecology is a broad discipline comprising many sub-disciplines namely:
? Ecophysiology -examines how the physiological functions of organisms influence the way they interact with the environment both biotic and abiotic.
? Behavioral ecology – examines the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment.
? Population ecology – studies the dynamics of populations of single species.
? Community ecology or synecology) focuses on the interactions between species within an ecological community.
? Ecosystem ecology studies the flows of energy and matter through the abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems.
? Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field focusing on the study development and organization of ecological systems from a holistic perspective.
? Landscape ecology examines processes and relationships across multiple
ecosystems or a very large geographic area.
? Evolutionary ecology studies ecology in a way that explicitly considers the
evolutionary histories of species and their interactions.
? Political ecology connects politics and economy to problems of environmental control and ecological change.