1. Infection—Invasion of the body by the disease producing organisms and (he subsequent multiplication of these organisms accompanied by destruction of healthy cells or tissues.
2. Immunity—Resistance of the body to infectious agents or their metabolic products.
3. Inflammation—A defensive reaction of tissues to injury, characterized by pain, vascular congestion, and the out pouring of white blood cells and tissue fluids at the site of injury.
4. Ischemia—Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply to a tissue or organ.
5. Infarction—Loss of blood supply to a tissue or organ.
6. Degeneration—Regressive changes in cells or tissues in Which structure is altered and certain functions arc inhibited or lost.
7. Necrosis—Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy parts.
8. Atrophy—Decrease in size of a normally developed cell, tissue, organ, or body part through disease or disuse.
9. Hypertrophy—Increase in size of a tissue or organ or structure that docs not involve tumor formation.
10. Hyperplasia—Excessive proliferation of normal cells in the normal tissue arrangement of an organ.
11. Metaplasia—Conversion of one kind of tissue into a form that is not normal for that tissue.
12. Neoplasia—Formation of abnormal and unchecked new growths (tumors).
13. Achalasia—Failure to relax; said of muscles, such as sphincters, the normal functions of which is a persistent contraction with period of relaxation.
14. Appendicitis—Inflammation of vermiform appendix.
15. Belching—Raising of gas from stomach and expelling it through the mouth and nose.
16. Cholecystitis—Inflammation of gall bladder.
17. Colitis—Inflammation of colon.
18. Constipation—Difficult defecation in frequent defecation with passage of unduly hard and dry faecal material, sluggish action of the bowels.
19. Diarrhoea—Frequent passage of unformed watery bowel movements. It is frequent symptom of gastrointestinal disturbances.