With the complexities of outbreaks of several diseases we have to go pathological centers with the prescriptions of the doctors to perform several tests. With this emerging scenario we must understand some terms related with several common diseases and pathological tests to understand what have happened to our body and to explore the test results correctly. To make this task simple, some definitions of pathological terms are described here for easy understanding.
1. Infection—Invasion of the body by the disease producing organisms and the subsequent multiplication of these organisms accompanied by destruction of healthy cells or tissues.
2. Immunity—Resistance of the body to infectious agents or their metabolic products.
3. Inflammation—A defensive reaction of tissues to injury, characterized by pain, vascular congestion, and the out pouring of white blood cells and tissue fluids at the site of injury.
4. Ischemia—Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply to a tissue or organ.
5. Infarction—Loss of blood supply to a tissue or organ.
6. Degeneration—Regressive changes in cells or tissues in which structure is altered and certain functions arc inhibited or lost.
7. Necrosis—Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy parts.
8. Atrophy—Decrease in size of a normally developed cell, tissue, organ, or body part through disease or disuse.
9. Hypertrophy—Increase in size of a tissue or organ or structure that docs not involve tumor formation.
10. Hyperplasia—Excessive proliferation of normal cells in the normal tissue arrangement of an organ.
11. Metaplasia—Conversion of one kind of tissue into a form that is not normal for that tissue.
12. Neoplasia—Formation of abnormal and unchecked new growths (tumors).
13. Achalasia—Failure to relax; said of muscles, such as sphincters, the normal functions of which is a persistent contraction with period of relaxation.
14. Appendicitis—Inflammation of vermiform appendix.
15. Belching—Raising of gas from stomach and expelling it through the mouth and nose.
16. Cholecystitis—Inflammation of gall bladder.
17. Colitis—Inflammation of colon.
18. Constipation—Difficult defecation in frequent defecation with passage of unduly hard and dry faecal material, sluggish action of the bowels.
19. Diarrhoea—Frequent passage of unformed watery bowel movements. It is frequent symptom of gastrointestinal disturbances.
20. Glycosuria—Presence of Glucose in urine.
21. Hepatitis—Inflammation of liver.
22. Hernia—Many types, but usually the intestine protrudes down in scrotal sacs.
23. Jaundice—Condition characterized by yellowness of skin and of eyes, mucous membranes, and body fluids due to deposition of bile pigments resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood.
24. Mumps—An acute contageous febrile disease characterized by painful inflammation of parotid gland and other salivary glands.
25. Nausea—Feeling of vomiting.
26. Tonsillitis—Inflammation of tonsils, specially the faucial tonsil.
27. Vomiting—Protective reflex action as a result, gut contents ejected out through mouth by reverse peristalsis.
28. Eupnea—Normal quiet breathing.
29. Hypopnea—Decreased breathing rate and depth of breathing.
30. Hyperpnea—Increased breathing rate that is deeper than that usually experienced during normal activity.
31. Dyspnea—Difficult breathing or air hunger resulting in laboured condition, sometimes accompanied by pain. Normal when due to athletic activity.
32. Polypnea—Very rapid breathing.
33. Orthopnea—Discomfort to breathe in horizontal position, but comfortable in erect sitting or standing position.
34. Acapnea—Literally, absence of carbon dioxide, but it is used to indicate the presence of less than normal amount of carbon dioxide in blood and tissues.
35. Asphyxia—Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen.
36. Hypoxia—Oxygen demand of tissue is not met completely due to decreased concentration of oxygen in the inspired air.
37. Anoxia—Tissue is completely deprived of oxygen or without oxygen.
3o. Acidosis—Decreased pH in blood and increased hydrogen ion concentration.
39. Alkalosis—High pH due to excessive alkalinity of body fluids.
40. Diuresis—Passing out of large volume of dilute urine in diabetes insipidus.
41. Oliguria—Excretion of scanty urine or infrequent urination.
42. Dysuria—Painful or difficult urination.
43. Uremia—Toxic condition associated with renal insufficiency produced by the retention in the blood of nitrogenous substances normally excreted by the kidney.
44. Nephrosis—Degenerative changes in kidney.
45. Hematuria— The discharge of urine containing blood often associated with diseases of the kidney.
46. Polycythemia—Increased R. B. C. count.
47. Bradycardia—Slow heart beat characterized by slow pulse rate.
48. Tachycardia—Abnormal increased heart beat.